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GNU Coreutils 9.0

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GNU Coreutils

This manual documents version 9.0 of the GNU core utilities, including the standard programs for text and file manipulation.

Copyright © 1994–2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

Introduction    Caveats, overview, and authors
Common options    Common options
Output of entire files    cat tac nl od base32 base64 basenc
Formatting file contents    fmt pr fold
Output of parts of files    head tail split csplit
Summarizing files    wc sum cksum b2sum md5sum sha1sum sha2
Operating on sorted files    sort shuf uniq comm ptx tsort
Operating on fields    cut paste join
Operating on characters    tr expand unexpand
Directory listing    ls dir vdir dircolors
Basic operations    cp dd install mv rm shred
Special file types    mkdir rmdir unlink mkfifo mknod ln link readlink
Changing file attributes    chgrp chmod chown touch
File space usage    df du stat sync truncate
Printing text    echo printf yes
Conditions    false true test expr
Redirection    tee
File name manipulation    dirname basename pathchk mktemp realpath
Working context    pwd stty printenv tty
User information    id logname whoami groups users who
System context    date arch nproc uname hostname hostid uptime
SELinux context    chcon runcon
Modified command invocation    chroot env nice nohup stdbuf timeout
Process control    kill
Delaying    sleep
Numeric operations    factor numfmt seq
File permissions    Access modes
File timestamps    File timestamp issues
Date input formats    Specifying date strings
Version sort ordering    Details on version-sort algorithm
Opening the software toolbox    The software tools philosophy
GNU Free Documentation License    Copying and sharing this manual
Concept index    General index
Exit status    Indicating program success or failure
Backup options    Backup options
Block size    Block size
Floating point    Floating point number representation
Signal specifications    Specifying signals
Disambiguating names and IDs    chgrp, chown, chroot, id: user and group syntax
Random sources    Sources of random data
Target directory    Target directory
Trailing slashes    Trailing slashes
Traversing symlinks    Traversing symlinks to directories
Treating / specially    Treating / specially
Standards conformance    Standards conformance
Multi-call invocation    Multi-call program invocation
cat invocation    Concatenate and write files
tac invocation    Concatenate and write files in reverse
nl invocation    Number lines and write files
od invocation    Write files in octal or other formats
base32 invocation    Transform data into printable data
base64 invocation    Transform data into printable data
basenc invocation    Transform data into printable data
fmt invocation    Reformat paragraph text
pr invocation    Paginate or columnate files for printing
fold invocation    Wrap input lines to fit in specified width
head invocation    Output the first part of files
tail invocation    Output the last part of files
split invocation    Split a file into fixed-size pieces
csplit invocation    Split a file into context-determined pieces
wc invocation    Print newline, word, and byte counts
sum invocation    Print checksum and block counts
cksum invocation    Print CRC checksum and byte counts
b2sum invocation    Print or check BLAKE2 digests
md5sum invocation    Print or check MD5 digests
sha1sum invocation    Print or check SHA-1 digests
sha2 utilities    Print or check SHA-2 digests
sort invocation    Sort text files
shuf invocation    Shuffle text files
uniq invocation    Uniquify files
comm invocation    Compare two sorted files line by line
ptx invocation    Produce a permuted index of file contents
tsort invocation    Topological sort
General options in ptx    Options which affect general program behavior
Charset selection in ptx    Underlying character set considerations
Input processing in ptx    Input fields, contexts, and keyword selection
Output formatting in ptx    Types of output format, and sizing the fields
Compatibility in ptx    The GNU extensions to ptx
cut invocation    Print selected parts of lines
paste invocation    Merge lines of files
join invocation    Join lines on a common field
tr invocation    Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
expand invocation    Convert tabs to spaces
unexpand invocation    Convert spaces to tabs
Character sets    Specifying sets of characters
Translating    Changing one set of characters to another
Squeezing and deleting    Removing characters
ls invocation    List directory contents
dir invocation    Briefly list directory contents
vdir invocation    Verbosely list directory contents
dircolors invocation    Color setup for ls
Which files are listed    Which files are listed
What information is listed    What information is listed
Sorting the output    Sorting the output
General output formatting    General output formatting
Formatting the file names    Formatting the file names
cp invocation    Copy files and directories
dd invocation    Convert and copy a file
install invocation    Copy files and set attributes
mv invocation    Move (rename) files
rm invocation    Remove files or directories
shred invocation    Remove files more securely
link invocation    Make a hard link via the link syscall
ln invocation    Make links between files
mkdir invocation    Make directories
mkfifo invocation    Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mknod invocation    Make block or character special files
readlink invocation    Print value of a symlink or canonical file name
rmdir invocation    Remove empty directories
unlink invocation    Remove files via unlink syscall
chown invocation    Change file owner and group
chgrp invocation    Change group ownership
chmod invocation    Change access permissions
touch invocation    Change file timestamps
df invocation    Report file system space usage
du invocation    Estimate file space usage
stat invocation    Report file or file system status
sync invocation    Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage
truncate invocation    Shrink or extend the size of a file
echo invocation    Print a line of text
printf invocation    Format and print data
yes invocation    Print a string until interrupted
false invocation    Do nothing, unsuccessfully
true invocation    Do nothing, successfully
test invocation    Check file types and compare values
expr invocation    Evaluate expressions
File type tests    File type tests
Access permission tests    Access permission tests
File characteristic tests    File characteristic tests
String tests    String tests
Numeric tests    Numeric tests
String expressions    + : match substr index length
Numeric expressions    + - * / %
Relations for expr    & < <= = == != >= >
Examples of expr    Examples of using expr
tee invocation    Redirect output to multiple files or processes
basename invocation    Strip directory and suffix from a file name
dirname invocation    Strip last file name component
pathchk invocation    Check file name validity and portability
mktemp invocation    Create temporary file or directory
realpath invocation    Print resolved file names
pwd invocation    Print working directory
stty invocation    Print or change terminal characteristics
printenv invocation    Print all or some environment variables
tty invocation    Print file name of terminal on standard input
Control    Control settings
Input    Input settings
Output    Output settings
Local    Local settings
Combination    Combination settings
Characters    Special characters
Special    Special settings
id invocation    Print user identity
logname invocation    Print current login name
whoami invocation    Print effective user ID
groups invocation    Print group names a user is in
users invocation    Print login names of users currently logged in
who invocation    Print who is currently logged in
arch invocation    Print machine hardware name
date invocation    Print or set system date and time
nproc invocation    Print the number of processors
uname invocation    Print system information
hostname invocation    Print or set system name
hostid invocation    Print numeric host identifier
uptime invocation    Print system uptime and load
Time conversion specifiers    %[HIklMNpPrRsSTXzZ]
Date conversion specifiers    %[aAbBcCdDeFgGhjmuUVwWxyY]
Literal conversion specifiers    %[%nt]
Padding and other flags    Pad with zeros, spaces, etc.
Setting the time    Changing the system clock
Options for date    Instead of the current time
Date input formats    Specifying date strings
Examples of date    Examples
chcon invocation    Change SELinux context of file
runcon invocation    Run a command in specified SELinux context
chroot invocation    Run a command with a different root directory
env invocation    Run a command in a modified environment
nice invocation    Run a command with modified niceness
nohup invocation    Run a command immune to hangups
stdbuf invocation    Run a command with modified I/O buffering
timeout invocation    Run a command with a time limit
kill invocation    Sending a signal to processes.
sleep invocation    Delay for a specified time
factor invocation    Print prime factors
numfmt invocation    Reformat numbers
seq invocation    Print numeric sequences
File timestamps    File timestamp issues
Mode Structure    Structure of file mode bits
Symbolic Modes    Mnemonic representation of file mode bits
Numeric Modes    File mode bits as octal numbers
Directory Setuid and Setgid    Set-user-ID and set-group-ID on directories
General date syntax    Common rules
Calendar date items    21 Jul 2020
Time of day items    9:20pm
Time zone items    UTC, -0700, +0900, …
Combined date and time of day items    2020-07-21T20:02:00,000000-0400
Day of week items    Monday and others
Relative items in date strings    next tuesday, 2 years ago
Pure numbers in date strings    20200721, 1440
Seconds since the Epoch    @1595289600
Specifying time zone rules    TZ="America/New_York", TZ="UTC0"
Authors of parse_datetime    Bellovin, Eggert, Salz, Berets, et al.
Version sort overview   
Implementation Details   
Differences from the official Debian Algorithm   
Advanced Topics   
Toolbox introduction    Toolbox introduction
I/O redirection    I/O redirection
The who command    The who command
The cut command    The cut command
The sort command    The sort command
The uniq command    The uniq command
Putting the tools together    Putting the tools together
GNU Free Documentation License    Copying and sharing this manual

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