I/O redirection (GNU Coreutils 9.0)
Hopefully, you are familiar with the basics of I/O redirection in the shell, in particular the concepts of “standard input,” “standard output,” and “standard error”. Briefly, “standard input” is a data source, where data comes from. A program should not need to either know or care if the data source is a regular file, a keyboard, a magnetic tape, or even a punched card reader. Similarly, “standard output” is a data sink, where data goes to. The program should neither know nor care where this might be. Programs that only read their standard input, do something to the data, and then send it on, are called filters, by analogy to filters in a water pipeline.
With the Unix shell, it’s very easy to set up data pipelines:
program_to_create_data | filter1 | ... | filterN > final.pretty.data
We start out by creating the raw data; each filter applies some successive transformation to the data, until by the time it comes out of the pipeline, it is in the desired form.
This is fine and good for standard input and standard output. Where does the standard error come in to play? Well, think about
filter1 in the pipeline above. What happens if it encounters an error in the data it sees? If it writes an error message to standard output, it will just disappear down the pipeline into
filter2’s input, and the user will probably never see it. So programs need a place where they can send error messages so that the user will notice them. This is standard error, and it is usually connected to your console or window, even if you have redirected standard output of your program away from your screen.
For filter programs to work together, the format of the data has to be agreed upon. The most straightforward and easiest format to use is simply lines of text. Unix data files are generally just streams of bytes, with lines delimited by the ASCII LF (Line Feed) character, conventionally called a “newline” in the Unix literature. (This is
'\n' if you’re a C programmer.) This is the format used by all the traditional filtering programs. (Many earlier operating systems had elaborate facilities and special purpose programs for managing binary data. Unix has always shied away from such things, under the philosophy that it’s easiest to simply be able to view and edit your data with a text editor.)
OK, enough introduction. Let’s take a look at some of the tools, and then we’ll see how to hook them together in interesting ways. In the following discussion, we will only present those command line options that interest us. As you should always do, double check your system documentation for the full story.