install invocation (GNU Coreutils 9.0)
11.3 install: Copy files and set attributes
install copies files while setting their file mode bits and, if possible, their owner and group. Synopses:
install [option]… [-T] source dest install [option]… source… directory install [option]… -t directory source… install [option]… -d directory…
- If two file names are given,
installcopies the first file to the second.
- If the
-t) option is given, or failing that if the last file is a directory and the
-T) option is not given,
sourcefile to the specified directory, using the
- If the
-d) option is given,
directoryand any missing parent directories. Parent directories are created with mode ‘
u=rwx,go=rx’ (755), regardless of the
-moption or the current umask. See Directory Setuid and Setgid, for how the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits of parent directories are inherited.
install is similar to
cp, but allows you to control the attributes of destination files. It is typically used in Makefiles to copy programs into their destination directories. It refuses to copy files onto themselves.
install never preserves extended attributes (xattr).
The program accepts the following options. Also see Common options.
See Backup options. Make a backup of each file that would otherwise be overwritten or removed.
Compare each pair of source and destination files, and if the destination has identical content and any specified owner, group, permissions, and possibly SELinux context, then do not modify the destination at all. Note this option is best used in conjunction with
installincorrectly determines the default attributes that installed files would have (as it doesn’t consider setgid directories and POSIX default ACLs for example). This could result in redundant copies or attributes that are not reset to the correct defaults.
Ignored; for compatibility with old Unix versions of
Create any missing parent directories of
dest, then copy
dest. Explicitly specifying the
--target-directory=dirwill similarly ensure the presence of that hierarchy before copying
Create any missing parent directories, giving them the default attributes. Then create each given directory, setting their owner, group and mode as given on the command line or to the defaults.
Set the group ownership of installed files or directories to
group. The default is the process’s current group.
groupmay be either a group name or a numeric group ID.
Set the file mode bits for the installed file or directory to
mode, which can be either an octal number, or a symbolic mode as in
chmod, with ‘
a=’ (no access allowed to anyone) as the point of departure (see File permissions). The default mode is ‘
u=rwx,go=rx,a-s’—read, write, and execute for the owner, read and execute for group and other, and with set-user-ID and set-group-ID disabled. This default is not quite the same as ‘
755’, since it disables instead of preserving set-user-ID and set-group-ID on directories. See Directory Setuid and Setgid.
installhas appropriate privileges (is run as root), set the ownership of installed files or directories to
owner. The default is
ownermay be either a user name or a numeric user ID.
Preserve the SELinux security context of files and directories. Failure to preserve the context in all of the files or directories will result in an exit status of 1. If SELinux is disabled then print a warning and ignore the option.
Set the time of last access and the time of last modification of each installed file to match those of each corresponding original file. When a file is installed without this option, its last access and last modification timestamps are both set to the time of installation. This option is useful if you want to use the last modification timestamps of installed files to keep track of when they were last built as opposed to when they were last installed.
Strip the symbol tables from installed binary executables.
Program used to strip binaries.
suffixto each backup file made with
-b. See Backup options.
Specify the destination
directory. See Target directory. Also specifying the
-Doption will ensure the directory is present.
Do not treat the last operand specially when it is a directory or a symbolic link to a directory. See Target directory.
Print the name of each file before copying it.
Without a specified
context, adjust the SELinux security context according to the system default type for destination files, similarly to the
restoreconcommand. The long form of this option with a specific context specified, will set the context for newly created files only. With a specified context, if both SELinux and SMACK are disabled, a warning is issued. This option is mutually exclusive with the
An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value indicates failure.