The usual way to invoke Emacs is with the shell command
emacs. From a terminal window running a Unix shell on a GUI
terminal, you can run Emacs in the background with emacs &; this
way, Emacs won’t tie up the terminal window, so you can use it to run
other shell commands. (For comparable methods of starting Emacs on
MS-Windows, see Windows Startup.)
When Emacs starts up, the initial frame displays a special buffer
*GNU Emacs*’. This startup screen contains
information about Emacs and links to common tasks that are
useful for beginning users. For instance, activating the ‘
Emacs Tutorial’ link opens the Emacs tutorial; this does the same thing as
the command C-h t (
help-with-tutorial). To activate a
link, either move point onto it and type RET, or click on
it with mouse-1 (the left mouse button).
Using a command line argument, you can tell Emacs to visit one or
more files as soon as it starts up. For example,
emacs foo.txt starts Emacs with a buffer displaying the contents of the
foo.txt’. This feature exists mainly for compatibility
with other editors, which are designed to be launched from the shell
for short editing sessions. If you call Emacs this way, the initial
frame is split into two windows—one showing the specified file, and
the other showing the startup screen. See Windows.
Generally, it is unnecessary and wasteful to start Emacs afresh each time you want to edit a file. The recommended way to use Emacs is to start it just once, just after you log in, and do all your editing in the same Emacs session. See Files, for information on visiting more than one file. If you use Emacs this way, the Emacs session accumulates valuable context, such as the kill ring, registers, undo history, and mark ring data, which together make editing more convenient. These features are described later in the manual.
To edit a file from another program while Emacs is running, you can
emacsclient helper program to open a file in the
existing Emacs session. See Emacs Server.
Emacs accepts other command line arguments that tell it to load certain Lisp files, where to put the initial frame, and so forth. See Emacs Invocation.
If the variable
inhibit-startup-screen is non-
Emacs does not display the startup screen. In that case, if one or
more files were specified on the command line, Emacs simply displays
those files; otherwise, it displays a buffer named
which can be used to evaluate Emacs Lisp expressions interactively.
See Lisp Interaction. You can set the variable
inhibit-startup-screen using the Customize facility
(see Easy Customization), or by editing your initialization file
(see Init File).4
You can also force Emacs to display a file or directory at startup
by setting the variable
initial-buffer-choice to a string
naming that file or directory. The value of
initial-buffer-choice may also be a function (of no arguments)
that should return a buffer which is then displayed.
initial-buffer-choice is non-
nil, then if you specify
any files on the command line, Emacs still visits them, but does not
display them initially.
site-start.el doesn’t work, because the startup screen is set
up before reading
site-start.el. See Init File, for