Python Module Index

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_
__future__ Future statement definitions
__main__ The environment where the top-level script is run.
_dummy_thread Drop-in replacement for the _thread module.
_thread Low-level threading API.
 
a
abc Abstract base classes according to :pep:`3119`.
aifc Read and write audio files in AIFF or AIFC format.
argparse Command-line option and argument parsing library.
array Space efficient arrays of uniformly typed numeric values.
ast Abstract Syntax Tree classes and manipulation.
asynchat Support for asynchronous command/response protocols.
asyncio Asynchronous I/O.
asyncore A base class for developing asynchronous socket handling

services.

atexit Register and execute cleanup functions.
audioop Manipulate raw audio data.
 
b
base64 RFC 3548: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings;

Base85 and Ascii85

bdb Debugger framework.
binascii Tools for converting between binary and various ASCII-encoded binary

representations.

binhex Encode and decode files in binhex4 format.
bisect Array bisection algorithms for binary searching.
builtins The module that provides the built-in namespace.
bz2 Interfaces for bzip2 compression and decompression.
 
c
calendar Functions for working with calendars, including some emulation

of the Unix cal program.

cgi Helpers for running Python scripts via the Common Gateway Interface.
cgitb Configurable traceback handler for CGI scripts.
chunk Module to read IFF chunks.
cmath Mathematical functions for complex numbers.
cmd Build line-oriented command interpreters.
code Facilities to implement read-eval-print loops.
codecs Encode and decode data and streams.
codeop Compile (possibly incomplete) Python code.
- collections Container datatypes
   

collections.abc

Abstract base classes for containers
colorsys Conversion functions between RGB and other color systems.
compileall Tools for byte-compiling all Python source files in a directory tree.
- concurrent '
   

concurrent.futures

Execute computations concurrently using threads or processes.
configparser Configuration file parser.
contextlib Utilities for with-statement contexts.
contextvars Context Variables
copy Shallow and deep copy operations.
copyreg Register pickle support functions.
cProfile '
crypt (Unix) The crypt() function used to check Unix passwords.
csv Write and read tabular data to and from delimited files.
ctypes A foreign function library for Python.
- curses (Unix) An interface to the curses library, providing portable

terminal handling.

   

curses.ascii

Constants and set-membership functions for ASCII characters.
   

curses.panel

A panel stack extension that adds depth to curses windows.
   

curses.textpad

Emacs-like input editing in a curses window.
 
d
dataclasses Generate special methods on user-defined classes.
datetime Basic date and time types.
- dbm Interfaces to various Unix "database" formats.
   

dbm.dumb

Portable implementation of the simple DBM interface.
   

dbm.gnu (Unix)

GNU's reinterpretation of dbm.
   

dbm.ndbm (Unix)

The standard "database" interface, based on ndbm.
decimal Implementation of the General Decimal Arithmetic Specification.
difflib Helpers for computing differences between objects.
dis Disassembler for Python bytecode.
- distutils Support for building and installing Python modules into an

existing Python installation.

   

distutils.archive_util

Utility functions for creating archive files (tarballs, zip files, ...)
   

distutils.bcppcompiler

'
   

distutils.ccompiler

Abstract CCompiler class
   

distutils.cmd

Provides the abstract base class :class:`~distutils.cmd.Command`. This class

is subclassed by the modules in the distutils.command subpackage.

   

distutils.command

Contains one module for each standard Distutils command.
   

distutils.command.bdist

Build a binary installer for a package
   

distutils.command.bdist_dumb

Build a "dumb" installer - a simple archive of files
   

distutils.command.bdist_msi

Build a binary distribution as a Windows MSI file
   

distutils.command.bdist_packager

Abstract base class for packagers
   

distutils.command.bdist_rpm

Build a binary distribution as a Redhat RPM and SRPM
   

distutils.command.bdist_wininst

Build a Windows installer
   

distutils.command.build

Build all files of a package
   

distutils.command.build_clib

Build any C libraries in a package
   

distutils.command.build_ext

Build any extensions in a package
   

distutils.command.build_py

Build the .py/.pyc files of a package
   

distutils.command.build_scripts

Build the scripts of a package
   

distutils.command.check

Check the meta-data of a package
   

distutils.command.clean

Clean a package build area
   

distutils.command.config

Perform package configuration
   

distutils.command.install

Install a package
   

distutils.command.install_data

Install data files from a package
   

distutils.command.install_headers

Install C/C++ header files from a package
   

distutils.command.install_lib

Install library files from a package
   

distutils.command.install_scripts

Install script files from a package
   

distutils.command.register

Register a module with the Python Package Index
   

distutils.command.sdist

Build a source distribution
   

distutils.core

The core Distutils functionality
   

distutils.cygwinccompiler

'
   

distutils.debug

Provides the debug flag for distutils
   

distutils.dep_util

Utility functions for simple dependency checking
   

distutils.dir_util

Utility functions for operating on directories and directory trees
   

distutils.dist

Provides the Distribution class, which represents the module distribution being

built/installed/distributed

   

distutils.errors

Provides standard distutils exceptions
   

distutils.extension

Provides the Extension class, used to describe C/C++ extension modules in setup

scripts

   

distutils.fancy_getopt

Additional getopt functionality
   

distutils.file_util

Utility functions for operating on single files
   

distutils.filelist

The FileList class, used for poking about the file system and

building lists of files.

   

distutils.log

A simple logging mechanism, :pep:`282`-style
   

distutils.msvccompiler

Microsoft Compiler
   

distutils.spawn

Provides the spawn() function
   

distutils.sysconfig

Low-level access to configuration information of the Python interpreter.
   

distutils.text_file

Provides the TextFile class, a simple interface to text files
   

distutils.unixccompiler

UNIX C Compiler
   

distutils.util

Miscellaneous other utility functions
   

distutils.version

Implements classes that represent module version numbers.
doctest Test pieces of code within docstrings.
dummy_threading Drop-in replacement for the threading module.
 
e
- email Package supporting the parsing, manipulating, and generating

email messages.

   

email.charset

Character Sets
   

email.contentmanager

Storing and Retrieving Content from MIME Parts
   

email.encoders

Encoders for email message payloads.
   

email.errors

The exception classes used by the email package.
   

email.generator

Generate flat text email messages from a message structure.
   

email.header

Representing non-ASCII headers
   

email.headerregistry

Automatic Parsing of headers based on the field name
   

email.iterators

Iterate over a message object tree.
   

email.message

The base class representing email messages.
   

email.mime

Build MIME messages.
   

email.parser

Parse flat text email messages to produce a message object structure.
   

email.policy

Controlling the parsing and generating of messages
   

email.utils

Miscellaneous email package utilities.
- encodings '
   

encodings.idna

Internationalized Domain Names implementation
   

encodings.mbcs

Windows ANSI codepage
   

encodings.utf_8_sig

UTF-8 codec with BOM signature
ensurepip Bootstrapping the "pip" installer into an existing Python

installation or virtual environment.

enum Implementation of an enumeration class.
errno Standard errno system symbols.
 
f
faulthandler Dump the Python traceback.
fcntl (Unix) The fcntl() and ioctl() system calls.
filecmp Compare files efficiently.
fileinput Loop over standard input or a list of files.
fnmatch Unix shell style filename pattern matching.
formatter Deprecated:

Generic output formatter and device interface.

fractions Rational numbers.
ftplib FTP protocol client (requires sockets).
functools Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects.
 
g
gc Interface to the cycle-detecting garbage collector.
getopt Portable parser for command line options; support both short and

long option names.

getpass Portable reading of passwords and retrieval of the userid.
gettext Multilingual internationalization services.
glob Unix shell style pathname pattern expansion.
grp (Unix) The group database (getgrnam() and friends).
gzip Interfaces for gzip compression and decompression using file objects.
 
h
hashlib Secure hash and message digest algorithms.
heapq Heap queue algorithm (a.k.a. priority queue).
hmac Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication (HMAC) implementation
- html Helpers for manipulating HTML.
   

html.entities

Definitions of HTML general entities.
   

html.parser

A simple parser that can handle HTML and XHTML.
- http HTTP status codes and messages
   

http.client

HTTP and HTTPS protocol client (requires sockets).
   

http.cookiejar

Classes for automatic handling of HTTP cookies.
   

http.cookies

Support for HTTP state management (cookies).
   

http.server

HTTP server and request handlers.
 
i
imaplib IMAP4 protocol client (requires sockets).
imghdr Determine the type of image contained in a file or byte stream.
imp Deprecated:

Access the implementation of the import statement.

- importlib The implementation of the import machinery.
   

importlib.abc

Abstract base classes related to import
   

importlib.machinery

Importers and path hooks
   

importlib.resources

Package resource reading, opening, and access
   

importlib.util

Utility code for importers
inspect Extract information and source code from live objects.
io Core tools for working with streams.
ipaddress IPv4/IPv6 manipulation library.
itertools Functions creating iterators for efficient looping.
 
j
- json Encode and decode the JSON format.
   

json.tool

A command line to validate and pretty-print JSON.
 
k
keyword Test whether a string is a keyword in Python.
 
l
lib2to3 The 2to3 library
linecache Provides random access to individual lines from text files.
locale Internationalization services.
- logging Flexible event logging system for applications.
   

logging.config

Configuration of the logging module.
   

logging.handlers

Handlers for the logging module.
lzma A Python wrapper for the liblzma compression library.
 
m
mailbox Manipulate mailboxes in various formats
mailcap Mailcap file handling.
marshal Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back (with different

constraints).

math Mathematical functions (sin() etc.).
mimetypes Mapping of filename extensions to MIME types.
mmap Interface to memory-mapped files for Unix and Windows.
modulefinder Find modules used by a script.
msilib (Windows) Creation of Microsoft Installer files, and CAB files.
msvcrt (Windows) Miscellaneous useful routines from the MS VC++ runtime.
- multiprocessing Process-based parallelism.
   

multiprocessing.connection

API for dealing with sockets.
   

multiprocessing.dummy

Dumb wrapper around threading.
   

multiprocessing.managers

Share data between process with shared objects.
   

multiprocessing.pool

Create pools of processes.
   

multiprocessing.shared_memory

Provides shared memory for direct access across processes.
   

multiprocessing.sharedctypes

Allocate ctypes objects from shared memory.
 
n
netrc Loading of .netrc files.
nis (Unix) Interface to Sun's NIS (Yellow Pages) library.
nntplib NNTP protocol client (requires sockets).
numbers Numeric abstract base classes (Complex, Real, Integral, etc.).
 
o
operator Functions corresponding to the standard operators.
optparse Deprecated:

Command-line option parsing library.

- os Miscellaneous operating system interfaces.
   

os.path

Operations on pathnames.
ossaudiodev (Linux, FreeBSD) Access to OSS-compatible audio devices.
 
p
parser Access parse trees for Python source code.
pathlib Object-oriented filesystem paths
pdb The Python debugger for interactive interpreters.
pickle Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back.
pickletools Contains extensive comments about the pickle protocols and

pickle-machine opcodes, as well as some useful functions.

pipes (Unix) A Python interface to Unix shell pipelines.
pkgutil Utilities for the import system.
platform Retrieves as much platform identifying data as possible.
plistlib Generate and parse Mac OS X plist files.
poplib POP3 protocol client (requires sockets).
posix (Unix) The most common POSIX system calls (normally used via module os).
pprint Data pretty printer.
profile Python source profiler.
pstats Statistics object for use with the profiler.
pty (Linux) Pseudo-Terminal Handling for Linux.
pwd (Unix) The password database (getpwnam() and friends).
py_compile Generate byte-code files from Python source files.
pyclbr Supports information extraction for a Python module browser.
pydoc Documentation generator and online help system.
 
q
queue A synchronized queue class.
quopri Encode and decode files using the MIME quoted-printable encoding.
 
r
random Generate pseudo-random numbers with various common distributions.
re Regular expression operations.
readline (Unix) GNU readline support for Python.
reprlib Alternate repr() implementation with size limits.
resource (Unix) An interface to provide resource usage information on the current process.
rlcompleter Python identifier completion, suitable for the GNU readline library.
runpy Locate and run Python modules without importing them first.
 
s
sched General purpose event scheduler.
secrets Generate secure random numbers for managing secrets.
select Wait for I/O completion on multiple streams.
selectors High-level I/O multiplexing.
shelve Python object persistence.
shlex Simple lexical analysis for Unix shell-like languages.
shutil High-level file operations, including copying.
signal Set handlers for asynchronous events.
site Module responsible for site-specific configuration.
smtpd A SMTP server implementation in Python.
smtplib SMTP protocol client (requires sockets).
sndhdr Determine type of a sound file.
socket Low-level networking interface.
socketserver A framework for network servers.
spwd (Unix) The shadow password database (getspnam() and friends).
sqlite3 A DB-API 2.0 implementation using SQLite 3.x.
ssl TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects
stat Utilities for interpreting the results of os.stat(),

os.lstat() and os.fstat().

statistics Mathematical statistics functions
string Common string operations.
stringprep String preparation, as per RFC 3453
struct Interpret bytes as packed binary data.
subprocess Subprocess management.
sunau Provide an interface to the Sun AU sound format.
symbol Constants representing internal nodes of the parse tree.
symtable Interface to the compiler's internal symbol tables.
sys Access system-specific parameters and functions.
sysconfig Python's configuration information
syslog (Unix) An interface to the Unix syslog library routines.
 
t
tabnanny Tool for detecting white space related problems in Python

source files in a directory tree.

tarfile Read and write tar-format archive files.
telnetlib Telnet client class.
tempfile Generate temporary files and directories.
termios (Unix) POSIX style tty control.
- test Regression tests package containing the testing suite for Python.
   

test.support

Support for Python's regression test suite.
   

test.support.script_helper

Support for Python's script execution tests.
textwrap Text wrapping and filling
threading Thread-based parallelism.
time Time access and conversions.
timeit Measure the execution time of small code snippets.
- tkinter Interface to Tcl/Tk for graphical user interfaces
   

tkinter.scrolledtext (Tk)

Text widget with a vertical scroll bar.
   

tkinter.tix

Tk Extension Widgets for Tkinter
   

tkinter.ttk

Tk themed widget set
token Constants representing terminal nodes of the parse tree.
tokenize Lexical scanner for Python source code.
trace Trace or track Python statement execution.
traceback Print or retrieve a stack traceback.
tracemalloc Trace memory allocations.
tty (Unix) Utility functions that perform common terminal control operations.
turtle An educational framework for simple graphics applications
turtledemo A viewer for example turtle scripts
types Names for built-in types.
typing Support for type hints (see :pep:`484`).
 
u
unicodedata Access the Unicode Database.
- unittest Unit testing framework for Python.
   

unittest.mock

Mock object library.
- urllib '
   

urllib.error

Exception classes raised by urllib.request.
   

urllib.parse

Parse URLs into or assemble them from components.
   

urllib.request

Extensible library for opening URLs.
   

urllib.response

Response classes used by urllib.
   

urllib.robotparser

Load a robots.txt file and answer questions about

fetchability of other URLs.

uu Encode and decode files in uuencode format.
uuid UUID objects (universally unique identifiers) according to RFC 4122
 
v
venv Creation of virtual environments.
 
w
warnings Issue warning messages and control their disposition.
wave Provide an interface to the WAV sound format.
weakref Support for weak references and weak dictionaries.
webbrowser Easy-to-use controller for Web browsers.
winreg (Windows) Routines and objects for manipulating the Windows registry.
winsound (Windows) Access to the sound-playing machinery for Windows.
- wsgiref WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation.
   

wsgiref.handlers

WSGI server/gateway base classes.
   

wsgiref.headers

WSGI response header tools.
   

wsgiref.simple_server

A simple WSGI HTTP server.
   

wsgiref.util

WSGI environment utilities.
   

wsgiref.validate

WSGI conformance checker.
 
x
xdrlib Encoders and decoders for the External Data Representation (XDR).
- xml Package containing XML processing modules
   

xml.dom

Document Object Model API for Python.
   

xml.dom.minidom

Minimal Document Object Model (DOM) implementation.
   

xml.dom.pulldom

Support for building partial DOM trees from SAX events.
   

xml.etree.ElementTree

Implementation of the ElementTree API.
   

xml.parsers.expat

An interface to the Expat non-validating XML parser.
   

xml.parsers.expat.errors

'
   

xml.parsers.expat.model

'
   

xml.sax

Package containing SAX2 base classes and convenience functions.
   

xml.sax.handler

Base classes for SAX event handlers.
   

xml.sax.saxutils

Convenience functions and classes for use with SAX.
   

xml.sax.xmlreader

Interface which SAX-compliant XML parsers must implement.
- xmlrpc '
   

xmlrpc.client

XML-RPC client access.
   

xmlrpc.server

Basic XML-RPC server implementations.
 
z
zipapp Manage executable Python zip archives
zipfile Read and write ZIP-format archive files.
zipimport Support for importing Python modules from ZIP archives.
zlib Low-level interface to compression and decompression routines

compatible with gzip.