*.pydfile the same as a DLL?
This is not necessarily a straightforward question. If you are already familiar with running programs from the Windows command line then everything will seem obvious; otherwise, you might need a little more guidance.
Unless you use some sort of integrated development environment, you will end up typing Windows commands into what is variously referred to as a “DOS window” or “Command prompt window”. Usually you can create such a window from your Start menu; under Windows 7 the menu selection is. You should be able to recognize when you have started such a window because you will see a Windows “command prompt”, which usually looks like this:
The letter may be different, and there might be other things after it, so you might just as easily see something like:
depending on how your computer has been set up and what else you have recently done with it. Once you have started such a window, you are well on the way to running Python programs.
You need to realize that your Python scripts have to be processed by another program called the Python interpreter. The interpreter reads your script, compiles it into bytecodes, and then executes the bytecodes to run your program. So, how do you arrange for the interpreter to handle your Python?
First, you need to make sure that your command window recognises the word
“python” as an instruction to start the interpreter. If you have opened a
command window, you should try entering the command
python and hitting
You should then see something like:
Python 2.7.3 (default, Apr 10 2012, 22.71:26) [MSC v.1500 32 bit (Intel)] on win32 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>>
You have started the interpreter in “interactive mode”. That means you can enter Python statements or expressions interactively and have them executed or evaluated while you wait. This is one of Python’s strongest features. Check it by entering a few expressions of your choice and seeing the results:
>>> print "Hello" Hello >>> "Hello" * 3 'HelloHelloHello'
Many people use the interactive mode as a convenient yet highly programmable calculator. When you want to end your interactive Python session, hold the Ctrl key down while you enter a Z, then hit the “Enter” key to get back to your Windows command prompt.
You may also find that you have a Start-menu entry such as
>>> prompt in a new window. If so, the window will disappear
after you enter the Ctrl-Z character; Windows is running a single “python”
command in the window, and closes it when you terminate the interpreter.
python command, instead of displaying the interpreter prompt
gives you a message like:
'python' is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file.
Bad command or filename
then you need to make sure that your computer knows where to find the Python interpreter. To do this you will have to modify a setting called PATH, which is a list of directories where Windows will look for programs.
You should arrange for Python’s installation directory to be added to the PATH of every command window as it starts. If you installed Python fairly recently then the command
will probably tell you where it is installed; the usual location is something
C:\Python27. Otherwise you will be reduced to a search of your whole
disk … use or hit the Search
button and look for “python.exe”. Supposing you discover that Python is
installed in the
C:\Python27 directory (the default at the time of writing),
you should make sure that entering the command
starts up the interpreter as above (and don’t forget you’ll need a “Ctrl-Z” and
an “Enter” to get out of it). Once you have verified the directory, you can
add it to the system path to make it easier to start Python by just running
python command. This is currently an option in the installer as of
More information about environment variables can be found on the Using Python on Windows page.
On Windows, the standard Python installer already associates the .py
extension with a file type (Python.File) and gives that file type an open
command that runs the interpreter (
D:\Program Files\Python\python.exe "%1" %*). This is enough to make scripts executable from the command prompt as
‘foo.py’. If you’d rather be able to execute the script by simple typing ‘foo’
with no extension you need to add .py to the PATHEXT environment variable.
Usually Python starts very quickly on Windows, but occasionally there are bug reports that Python suddenly begins to take a long time to start up. This is made even more puzzling because Python will work fine on other Windows systems which appear to be configured identically.
The problem may be caused by a misconfiguration of virus checking software on the problem machine. Some virus scanners have been known to introduce startup overhead of two orders of magnitude when the scanner is configured to monitor all reads from the filesystem. Try checking the configuration of virus scanning software on your systems to ensure that they are indeed configured identically. McAfee, when configured to scan all file system read activity, is a particular offender.
See http://www.py2exe.org/ for a distutils extension that allows you to create console and GUI executables from Python code.
Yes, .pyd files are dll’s, but there are a few differences. If you have a DLL
foo.pyd, then it must have a function
initfoo(). You can then
write Python “import foo”, and Python will search for foo.pyd (as well as
foo.py, foo.pyc) and if it finds it, will attempt to call
initialize it. You do not link your .exe with foo.lib, as that would cause
Windows to require the DLL to be present.
Note that the search path for foo.pyd is PYTHONPATH, not the same as the path
that Windows uses to search for foo.dll. Also, foo.pyd need not be present to
run your program, whereas if you linked your program with a dll, the dll is
required. Of course, foo.pyd is required if you want to say
import foo. In
a DLL, linkage is declared in the source code with
In a .pyd, linkage is defined in a list of available functions.
Embedding the Python interpreter in a Windows app can be summarized as follows:
Do _not_ build Python into your .exe file directly. On Windows, Python must
be a DLL to handle importing modules that are themselves DLL’s. (This is the
first key undocumented fact.) Instead, link to
pythonNN.dll; it is
typically installed in
C:\Windows\System. NN is the Python version, a
number such as “27” for Python 2.7.
You can link to Python in two different ways. Load-time linking means
pythonNN.lib, while run-time linking means linking
pythonNN.dll. (General note:
pythonNN.lib is the
so-called “import lib” corresponding to
pythonNN.dll. It merely
defines symbols for the linker.)
Run-time linking greatly simplifies link options; everything happens at run
time. Your code must load
pythonNN.dll using the Windows
LoadLibraryEx() routine. The code must also use access routines and data
pythonNN.dll (that is, Python’s C API’s) using pointers obtained
by the Windows
GetProcAddress() routine. Macros can make using these
pointers transparent to any C code that calls routines in Python’s C API.
Borland note: convert
pythonNN.lib to OMF format using Coff2Omf.exe
If you use SWIG, it is easy to create a Python “extension module” that will make the app’s data and methods available to Python. SWIG will handle just about all the grungy details for you. The result is C code that you link into your .exe file (!) You do _not_ have to create a DLL file, and this also simplifies linking.
SWIG will create an init function (a C function) whose name depends on the name of the extension module. For example, if the name of the module is leo, the init function will be called initleo(). If you use SWIG shadow classes, as you should, the init function will be called initleoc(). This initializes a mostly hidden helper class used by the shadow class.
The reason you can link the C code in step 2 into your .exe file is that calling the initialization function is equivalent to importing the module into Python! (This is the second key undocumented fact.)
In short, you can use the following code to initialize the Python interpreter with your extension module.
#include "python.h" ... Py_Initialize(); // Initialize Python. initmyAppc(); // Initialize (import) the helper class. PyRun_SimpleString("import myApp"); // Import the shadow class.
There are two problems with Python’s C API which will become apparent if you use a compiler other than MSVC, the compiler used to build pythonNN.dll.
Problem 1: The so-called “Very High Level” functions that take FILE * arguments will not work in a multi-compiler environment because each compiler’s notion of a struct FILE will be different. From an implementation standpoint these are very _low_ level functions.
Problem 2: SWIG generates the following code when generating wrappers to void functions:
Py_INCREF(Py_None); _resultobj = Py_None; return _resultobj;
Alas, Py_None is a macro that expands to a reference to a complex data structure called _Py_NoneStruct inside pythonNN.dll. Again, this code will fail in a mult-compiler environment. Replace such code by:
It may be possible to use SWIG’s
%typemap command to make the change
automatically, though I have not been able to get this to work (I’m a
complete SWIG newbie).
Using a Python shell script to put up a Python interpreter window from inside your Windows app is not a good idea; the resulting window will be independent of your app’s windowing system. Rather, you (or the wxPythonWindow class) should create a “native” interpreter window. It is easy to connect that window to the Python interpreter. You can redirect Python’s i/o to _any_ object that supports read and write, so all you need is a Python object (defined in your extension module) that contains read() and write() methods.
The FAQ does not recommend using tabs, and the Python style guide, PEP 8, recommends 4 spaces for distributed Python code; this is also the Emacs python-mode default.
Under any editor, mixing tabs and spaces is a bad idea. MSVC is no different in this respect, and is easily configured to use spaces: Take, and for file type “Default” set “Tab size” and “Indent size” to 4, and select the “Insert spaces” radio button.
Use the msvcrt module. This is a standard Windows-specific extension module.
It defines a function
kbhit() which checks whether a keyboard hit is
getch() which gets one character without echoing it.
Prior to Python 2.7 and 3.2, to terminate a process, you can use
import ctypes def kill(pid): """kill function for Win32""" kernel32 = ctypes.windll.kernel32 handle = kernel32.OpenProcess(1, 0, pid) return (0 != kernel32.TerminateProcess(handle, 0))
In 2.7 and 3.2,
os.kill() is implemented similar to the above function,
with the additional feature of being able to send Ctrl+C and Ctrl+Break
to console subprocesses which are designed to handle those signals. See
os.kill() for further details.
Sometimes, when you download the documentation package to a Windows machine using a web browser, the file extension of the saved file ends up being .EXE. This is a mistake; the extension should be .TGZ.
Simply rename the downloaded file to have the .TGZ extension, and WinZip will be able to handle it. (If your copy of WinZip doesn’t, get a newer one from https://www.winzip.com.)