To set a variable from the makefile, write a line starting with the
variable name followed by ‘
:=’, or ‘
follows the ‘
:=’, or ‘
::=’ on the line becomes the
value. For example,
objects = main.o foo.o bar.o utils.o
defines a variable named
objects. Whitespace around the variable
name and immediately after the ‘
=’ is ignored.
Variables defined with ‘
=’ are recursively expanded
variables. Variables defined with ‘
:=’ or ‘
simply expanded variables; these definitions can contain
variable references which will be expanded before the definition is
made. See The Two Flavors of Variables.
The variable name may contain function and variable references, which are expanded when the line is read to find the actual variable name to use.
There is no limit on the length of the value of a variable except the amount of memory on the computer. You can split the value of a variable into multiple physical lines for readability (see Splitting Long Lines).
Most variable names are considered to have the empty string as a value if you have never set them. Several variables have built-in initial values that are not empty, but you can set them in the usual ways (see Variables Used by Implicit Rules). Several special variables are set automatically to a new value for each rule; these are called the automatic variables (see Automatic Variables).
If you’d like a variable to be set to a value only if it’s not already
set, then you can use the shorthand operator ‘
?=’ instead of
=’. These two settings of the variable ‘
FOO’ are identical
FOO ?= bar
ifeq ($(origin FOO), undefined) FOO = bar endif
The shell assignment operator ‘
!=’ can be used to execute a
shell script and set a variable to its output. This operator first
evaluates the right-hand side, then passes that result to the shell
for execution. If the result of the execution ends in a newline, that
one newline is removed; all other newlines are replaced by spaces.
The resulting string is then placed into the named
recursively-expanded variable. For example:
hash != printf '\043' file_list != find . -name '*.c'
If the result of the execution could produce a
$, and you don’t
intend what follows that to be interpreted as a make variable or
function reference, then you must replace every
$$ as part of the execution. Alternatively, you can set a
simply expanded variable to the result of running a program using the
shell function call. See The
Function. For example:
hash := $(shell printf '\043') var := $(shell find . -name "*.c")
As with the
shell function, the exit status of the just-invoked
shell script is stored in the