When a pattern rule’s target is just ‘
%’, it matches any file name
whatever. We call these rules match-anything rules. They are very
useful, but it can take a lot of time for
make to think about them,
because it must consider every such rule for each file name listed either
as a target or as a prerequisite.
Suppose the makefile mentions
foo.c. For this target,
would have to consider making it by linking an object file
or by C compilation-and-linking in one step from
foo.c.c, or by
Pascal compilation-and-linking from
foo.c.p, and many other
We know these possibilities are ridiculous since
foo.c is a C source
file, not an executable. If
make did consider these possibilities,
it would ultimately reject them, because files such as
foo.c.p would not exist. But these possibilities are so
make would run very slowly if it had to consider
To gain speed, we have put various constraints on the way
considers match-anything rules. There are two different constraints that
can be applied, and each time you define a match-anything rule you must
choose one or the other for that rule.
One choice is to mark the match-anything rule as terminal by defining it with a double colon. When a rule is terminal, it does not apply unless its prerequisites actually exist. Prerequisites that could be made with other implicit rules are not good enough. In other words, no further chaining is allowed beyond a terminal rule.
For example, the built-in implicit rules for extracting sources from RCS
and SCCS files are terminal; as a result, if the file
make will not even consider trying to make it as an
intermediate file from
foo.c,v.o or from
RCS and SCCS files are generally ultimate source files, which should not be
remade from any other files; therefore,
make can save time by not
looking for ways to remake them.
If you do not mark the match-anything rule as terminal, then it is non-terminal. A non-terminal match-anything rule cannot apply to a prerequisite of an implicit rule, or to a file name that indicates a specific type of data. A file name indicates a specific type of data if some non-match-anything implicit rule target matches it.
For example, the file name
foo.c matches the target for the pattern
%.c : %.y’ (the rule to run Yacc). Regardless of whether this
rule is actually applicable (which happens only if there is a file
foo.y), the fact that its target matches is enough to prevent
consideration of any non-terminal match-anything rules for the file
make will not even consider trying to make
foo.c as an executable file from
The motivation for this constraint is that non-terminal match-anything rules are used for making files containing specific types of data (such as executable files) and a file name with a recognized suffix indicates some other specific type of data (such as a C source file).
Special built-in dummy pattern rules are provided solely to recognize certain file names so that non-terminal match-anything rules will not be considered. These dummy rules have no prerequisites and no recipes, and they are ignored for all other purposes. For example, the built-in implicit rule
exists to make sure that Pascal source files such as
foo.p match a
specific target pattern and thereby prevent time from being wasted looking
Dummy pattern rules such as the one for ‘
%.p’ are made for every
suffix listed as valid for use in suffix rules (see Old-Fashioned Suffix Rules).