run command to start your program under GDB.
You must first specify the program name with an argument to
GDB (see Getting In and Out of
GDB), or by using the
command (see Commands to Specify Files).
If you are running your program in an execution environment that
run creates an inferior process and makes
that process run your program. In some environments without processes,
run jumps to the start of your program. Other targets,
remote’, are always running. If you get an error
message like this one:
The "remote" target does not support "run". Try "help target" or "continue".
continue to run your program. You may need
first (see load).
The execution of a program is affected by certain information it receives from its superior. GDB provides ways to specify this information, which you must do before starting your program. (You can change it after starting your program, but such changes only affect your program the next time you start it.) This information may be divided into four categories:
Specify the arguments to give your program as the arguments of the
run command. If a shell is available on your target, the shell
is used to pass the arguments, so that you may use normal conventions
(such as wildcard expansion or variable substitution) in describing
In Unix systems, you can control which shell is used with the
SHELL environment variable. If you do not define
GDB uses the default shell (
/bin/sh). You can disable
use of any shell with the
set startup-with-shell command (see
below for details).
Your program normally inherits its environment from GDB, but you can
use the GDB commands
set environment and
unset environment to change parts of the environment that affect
your program. See Your Program’s Environment.
You can set your program’s working directory with the command set cwd. If you do not set any working directory with this command, your program will inherit GDB’s working directory if native debugging, or the remote server’s working directory if remote debugging. See Your Program’s Working Directory.
Your program normally uses the same device for standard input and
standard output as GDB is using. You can redirect input and output
run command line, or you can use the
tty command to
set a different device for your program.
See Your Program’s Input and Output.
Warning: While input and output redirection work, you cannot use pipes to pass the output of the program you are debugging to another program; if you attempt this, GDB is likely to wind up debugging the wrong program.
When you issue the
run command, your program begins to execute
immediately. See Stopping and Continuing, for discussion
of how to arrange for your program to stop. Once your program has
stopped, you may call functions in your program, using the
call commands. See Examining Data.
If the modification time of your symbol file has changed since the last time GDB read its symbols, GDB discards its symbol table, and reads it again. When it does this, GDB tries to retain your current breakpoints.
The name of the main procedure can vary from language to language.
With C or C
++, the main procedure name is always
other languages such as Ada do not require a specific name for their
main procedure. The debugger provides a convenient way to start the
execution of the program and to stop at the beginning of the main
procedure, depending on the language used.
start’ command does the equivalent of setting a temporary
breakpoint at the beginning of the main procedure and then invoking
Some programs contain an elaboration phase where some startup code is
executed before the main procedure is called. This depends on the
languages used to write your program. In C
++, for instance,
constructors for static and global objects are executed before
main is called. It is therefore possible that the debugger stops
before reaching the main procedure. However, the temporary breakpoint
will remain to halt execution.
Specify the arguments to give to your program as arguments to the
start’ command. These arguments will be given verbatim to the
run’ command. Note that the same arguments will be
reused if no argument is provided during subsequent calls to
start’ or ‘
It is sometimes necessary to debug the program during elaboration. In
these cases, using the
start command would stop the execution
of your program too late, as the program would have already completed
the elaboration phase. Under these circumstances, either insert
breakpoints in your elaboration code before running your program or
starti’ command does the equivalent of setting a temporary
breakpoint at the first instruction of a program’s execution and then
invoking the ‘
run’ command. For programs containing an
elaboration phase, the
starti command will stop execution at
the start of the elaboration phase.
set exec-wrapper wrapper
exec-wrapper’ is set, the specified wrapper is used to
launch programs for debugging. GDB starts your program
with a shell command of the form exec
program. Quoting is added to
program and its
arguments, but not to
wrapper, so you should add quotes if
appropriate for your shell. The wrapper runs until it executes
your program, and then GDB takes control.
You can use any program that eventually calls
its arguments as a wrapper. Several standard Unix utilities do
nohup. Any Unix shell script ending
exec "[email protected]" will also work.
For example, you can use
env to pass an environment variable to
the debugged program, without setting the variable in your shell’s
(gdb) set exec-wrapper env 'LD_PRELOAD=libtest.so' (gdb) run
This command is available when debugging locally on most targets, excluding DJGPP, Cygwin, MS Windows, and QNX Neutrino.
set startup-with-shell on
set startup-with-shell off
On Unix systems, by default, if a shell is available on your target,
GDB) uses it to start your program. Arguments of the
run command are passed to the shell, which does variable
substitution, expands wildcard characters and performs redirection of
I/O. In some circumstances, it may be useful to disable such use of a
shell, for example, when debugging the shell itself or diagnosing
startup failures such as:
(gdb) run Starting program: ./a.out During startup program terminated with signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
which indicates the shell or the wrapper specified with
exec-wrapper’ crashed, not your program. Most often, this is
caused by something odd in your shell’s non-interactive mode
initialization file—such as
.cshrc for C-shell,
.zshenv for the Z shell, or the file specified in the
BASH_ENV’ environment variable for BASH.
set auto-connect-native-target on
set auto-connect-native-target off
By default, if the current inferior is not connected to any target yet
target remote), the
run command starts your
program as a native process under GDB, on your local machine.
If you’re sure you don’t want to debug programs on your local machine,
you can tell GDB to not connect to the native target
automatically with the
set auto-connect-native-target off
on, which is the default, and if the current inferior is not
connected to a target already, the
run command automaticaly
connects to the native target, if one is available.
off, and if the current inferior is not connected to a
target already, the
run command fails with an error:
(gdb) run Don't know how to run. Try "help target".
If the current inferior is already connected to a target, GDB
always uses it with the
In any case, you can explicitly connect to the native target with the
target native command. For example,
(gdb) set auto-connect-native-target off (gdb) run Don't know how to run. Try "help target". (gdb) target native (gdb) run Starting program: ./a.out [Inferior 1 (process 10421) exited normally]
In case you connected explicitly to the
GDB remains connected even if all inferiors exit, ready for
run command. Use the
disconnect command to
Examples of other commands that likewise respect the
set disable-randomization on
This option (enabled by default in GDB) will turn off the native randomization of the virtual address space of the started program. This option is useful for multiple debugging sessions to make the execution better reproducible and memory addresses reusable across debugging sessions.
This feature is implemented only on certain targets, including GNU/Linux. On GNU/Linux you can get the same behavior using
(gdb) set exec-wrapper setarch `uname -m` -R
set disable-randomization off
Leave the behavior of the started executable unchanged. Some bugs rear their ugly heads only when the program is loaded at certain addresses. If your bug disappears when you run the program under GDB, that might be because GDB by default disables the address randomization on platforms, such as GNU/Linux, which do that for stand-alone programs. Use set disable-randomization off to try to reproduce such elusive bugs.
On targets where it is available, virtual address space randomization protects the programs against certain kinds of security attacks. In these cases the attacker needs to know the exact location of a concrete executable code. Randomizing its location makes it impossible to inject jumps misusing a code at its expected addresses.
Prelinking shared libraries provides a startup performance advantage but it makes addresses in these libraries predictable for privileged processes by having just unprivileged access at the target system. Reading the shared library binary gives enough information for assembling the malicious code misusing it. Still even a prelinked shared library can get loaded at a new random address just requiring the regular relocation process during the startup. Shared libraries not already prelinked are always loaded at a randomly chosen address.
Position independent executables (PIE) contain position independent code
similar to the shared libraries and therefore such executables get loaded at
a randomly chosen address upon startup. PIE executables always load even
already prelinked shared libraries at a random address. You can build such
gcc -fPIE -pie.
Heap (malloc storage), stack and custom mmap areas are always placed randomly (as long as the randomization is enabled).
Show the current setting of the explicit disable of the native randomization of the virtual address space of the started program.