# Floating point summary (The GNU Awk User’s Guide)

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Gawk/docs/latest/Floating-point-summary

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### 16.8 Summary

- Most computer arithmetic is done using either integers or floating-point values. Standard
`awk`

uses double-precision floating-point values. - In the early 1990s Barbie mistakenly said, “Math class is tough!” Although math isn’t tough, floating-point arithmetic isn’t the same as pencil-and-paper math, and care must be taken: - Not all numbers can be represented exactly. - Comparing values should use a delta, instead of being done directly with ‘==’ and ‘!=’. - Errors accumulate. - Operations are not always truly associative or distributive.
- Increasing the accuracy can help, but it is not a panacea.
- Often, increasing the accuracy and then rounding to the desired number of digits produces reasonable results.
- Use
`-M`

(or`--bignum`

) to enable MPFR arithmetic. Use`PREC`

to set the precision in bits, and`ROUNDMODE`

to set the IEEE 754 rounding mode. - With
`-M`

,`gawk`

performs arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic using the GMP library. This is faster and more space-efficient than using MPFR for the same calculations. - There are several areas with respect to floating-point numbers where
`gawk`

disagrees with the POSIX standard. It pays to be aware of them. - Overall, there is no need to be unduly suspicious about the results from floating-point arithmetic. The lesson to remember is that floating-point arithmetic is always more complex than arithmetic using pencil and paper. In order to take advantage of the power of floating-point arithmetic, you need to know its limitations and work within them. For most casual use of floating-point arithmetic, you will often get the expected result if you simply round the display of your final results to the correct number of significant decimal digits.
- As general advice, avoid presenting numerical data in a manner that implies better precision than is actually the case.

Previous: POSIX Floating Point Problems, Up: Arbitrary Precision Arithmetic [Contents][Index]