Source code for django.views.debug

import functools
import re
import sys
import types
from pathlib import Path

from django.conf import settings
from django.http import HttpResponse, HttpResponseNotFound
from django.template import Context, Engine, TemplateDoesNotExist
from django.template.defaultfilters import pprint
from django.urls import Resolver404, resolve
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.datastructures import MultiValueDict
from django.utils.encoding import force_text
from django.utils.module_loading import import_string
from django.utils.version import get_docs_version

# Minimal Django templates engine to render the error templates
# regardless of the project's TEMPLATES setting. Templates are
# read directly from the filesystem so that the error handler
# works even if the template loader is broken.
    libraries={'i18n': 'django.templatetags.i18n'},


CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE = '********************'

CURRENT_DIR = Path(__file__).parent

class CallableSettingWrapper:
    Object to wrap callable appearing in settings.
    * Not to call in the debug page (#21345).
    * Not to break the debug page if the callable forbidding to set attributes
    def __init__(self, callable_setting):
        self._wrapped = callable_setting

    def __repr__(self):
        return repr(self._wrapped)

def cleanse_setting(key, value):
    Cleanse an individual setting key/value of sensitive content. If the value
    is a dictionary, recursively cleanse the keys in that dictionary.
            cleansed = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
            if isinstance(value, dict):
                cleansed = {k: cleanse_setting(k, v) for k, v in value.items()}
                cleansed = value
    except TypeError:
        # If the key isn't regex-able, just return as-is.
        cleansed = value

    if callable(cleansed):
        # For fixing #21345 and #23070
        cleansed = CallableSettingWrapper(cleansed)

    return cleansed

def get_safe_settings():
    Return a dictionary of the settings module with values of sensitive
    settings replaced with stars (*********).
    settings_dict = {}
    for k in dir(settings):
        if k.isupper():
            settings_dict[k] = cleanse_setting(k, getattr(settings, k))
    return settings_dict

def technical_500_response(request, exc_type, exc_value, tb, status_code=500):
    Create a technical server error response. The last three arguments are
    the values returned from sys.exc_info() and friends.
    reporter = ExceptionReporter(request, exc_type, exc_value, tb)
    if request.is_ajax():
        text = reporter.get_traceback_text()
        return HttpResponse(text, status=status_code, content_type='text/plain; charset=utf-8')
        html = reporter.get_traceback_html()
        return HttpResponse(html, status=status_code, content_type='text/html')

def get_default_exception_reporter_filter():
    # Instantiate the default filter for the first time and cache it.
    return import_string(settings.DEFAULT_EXCEPTION_REPORTER_FILTER)()

def get_exception_reporter_filter(request):
    default_filter = get_default_exception_reporter_filter()
    return getattr(request, 'exception_reporter_filter', default_filter)

class ExceptionReporterFilter:
    Base for all exception reporter filter classes. All overridable hooks
    contain lenient default behaviors.

    def get_post_parameters(self, request):
        if request is None:
            return {}
            return request.POST

    def get_traceback_frame_variables(self, request, tb_frame):
        return list(tb_frame.f_locals.items())

[docs]class SafeExceptionReporterFilter(ExceptionReporterFilter):
    Use annotations made by the sensitive_post_parameters and
    sensitive_variables decorators to filter out sensitive information.

[docs]    def is_active(self, request):
        This filter is to add safety in production environments (i.e. DEBUG
        is False). If DEBUG is True then your site is not safe anyway.
        This hook is provided as a convenience to easily activate or
        deactivate the filter on a per request basis.
        return settings.DEBUG is False

    def get_cleansed_multivaluedict(self, request, multivaluedict):
        Replace the keys in a MultiValueDict marked as sensitive with stars.
        This mitigates leaking sensitive POST parameters if something like
        request.POST['nonexistent_key'] throws an exception (#21098).
        sensitive_post_parameters = getattr(request, 'sensitive_post_parameters', [])
        if self.is_active(request) and sensitive_post_parameters:
            multivaluedict = multivaluedict.copy()
            for param in sensitive_post_parameters:
                if param in multivaluedict:
                    multivaluedict[param] = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
        return multivaluedict

[docs]    def get_post_parameters(self, request):
        Replace the values of POST parameters marked as sensitive with
        stars (*********).
        if request is None:
            return {}
            sensitive_post_parameters = getattr(request, 'sensitive_post_parameters', [])
            if self.is_active(request) and sensitive_post_parameters:
                cleansed = request.POST.copy()
                if sensitive_post_parameters == '__ALL__':
                    # Cleanse all parameters.
                    for k in cleansed:
                        cleansed[k] = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
                    return cleansed
                    # Cleanse only the specified parameters.
                    for param in sensitive_post_parameters:
                        if param in cleansed:
                            cleansed[param] = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
                    return cleansed
                return request.POST

    def cleanse_special_types(self, request, value):
            # If value is lazy or a complex object of another kind, this check
            # might raise an exception. isinstance checks that lazy
            # MultiValueDicts will have a return value.
            is_multivalue_dict = isinstance(value, MultiValueDict)
        except Exception as e:
            return '{!r} while evaluating {!r}'.format(e, value)

        if is_multivalue_dict:
            # Cleanse MultiValueDicts (request.POST is the one we usually care about)
            value = self.get_cleansed_multivaluedict(request, value)
        return value

[docs]    def get_traceback_frame_variables(self, request, tb_frame):
        Replace the values of variables marked as sensitive with
        stars (*********).
        # Loop through the frame's callers to see if the sensitive_variables
        # decorator was used.
        current_frame = tb_frame.f_back
        sensitive_variables = None
        while current_frame is not None:
            if (current_frame.f_code.co_name == 'sensitive_variables_wrapper' and
                    'sensitive_variables_wrapper' in current_frame.f_locals):
                # The sensitive_variables decorator was used, so we take note
                # of the sensitive variables' names.
                wrapper = current_frame.f_locals['sensitive_variables_wrapper']
                sensitive_variables = getattr(wrapper, 'sensitive_variables', None)
            current_frame = current_frame.f_back

        cleansed = {}
        if self.is_active(request) and sensitive_variables:
            if sensitive_variables == '__ALL__':
                # Cleanse all variables
                for name in tb_frame.f_locals:
                    cleansed[name] = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
                # Cleanse specified variables
                for name, value in tb_frame.f_locals.items():
                    if name in sensitive_variables:
                        value = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
                        value = self.cleanse_special_types(request, value)
                    cleansed[name] = value
            # Potentially cleanse the request and any MultiValueDicts if they
            # are one of the frame variables.
            for name, value in tb_frame.f_locals.items():
                cleansed[name] = self.cleanse_special_types(request, value)

        if (tb_frame.f_code.co_name == 'sensitive_variables_wrapper' and
                'sensitive_variables_wrapper' in tb_frame.f_locals):
            # For good measure, obfuscate the decorated function's arguments in
            # the sensitive_variables decorator's frame, in case the variables
            # associated with those arguments were meant to be obfuscated from
            # the decorated function's frame.
            cleansed['func_args'] = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE
            cleansed['func_kwargs'] = CLEANSED_SUBSTITUTE

        return cleansed.items()

[docs]class ExceptionReporter:
    """Organize and coordinate reporting on exceptions."""
    def __init__(self, request, exc_type, exc_value, tb, is_email=False):
        self.request = request
        self.filter = get_exception_reporter_filter(self.request)
        self.exc_type = exc_type
        self.exc_value = exc_value
        self.tb = tb
        self.is_email = is_email

        self.template_info = getattr(self.exc_value, 'template_debug', None)
        self.template_does_not_exist = False
        self.postmortem = None

[docs]    def get_traceback_data(self):
        """Return a dictionary containing traceback information."""
        if self.exc_type and issubclass(self.exc_type, TemplateDoesNotExist):
            self.template_does_not_exist = True
            self.postmortem = self.exc_value.chain or [self.exc_value]

        frames = self.get_traceback_frames()
        for i, frame in enumerate(frames):
            if 'vars' in frame:
                frame_vars = []
                for k, v in frame['vars']:
                    v = pprint(v)
                    # Trim large blobs of data
                    if len(v) > 4096:
                        v = '%s… %d bytes string>' % (v[0:4096], len(v))
                    frame_vars.append((k, v))
                frame['vars'] = frame_vars
            frames[i] = frame

        unicode_hint = ''
        if self.exc_type and issubclass(self.exc_type, UnicodeError):
            start = getattr(self.exc_value, 'start', None)
            end = getattr(self.exc_value, 'end', None)
            if start is not None and end is not None:
                unicode_str = self.exc_value.args[1]
                unicode_hint = force_text(
                    unicode_str[max(start - 5, 0):min(end + 5, len(unicode_str))],
                    'ascii', errors='replace'
        from django import get_version

        if self.request is None:
            user_str = None
                user_str = str(self.request.user)
            except Exception:
                # request.user may raise OperationalError if the database is
                # unavailable, for example.
                user_str = '[unable to retrieve the current user]'

        c = {
            'is_email': self.is_email,
            'unicode_hint': unicode_hint,
            'frames': frames,
            'request': self.request,
            'user_str': user_str,
            'filtered_POST_items': list(self.filter.get_post_parameters(self.request).items()),
            'settings': get_safe_settings(),
            'sys_executable': sys.executable,
            'sys_version_info': '%d.%d.%d' % sys.version_info[0:3],
            'django_version_info': get_version(),
            'sys_path': sys.path,
            'template_info': self.template_info,
            'template_does_not_exist': self.template_does_not_exist,
            'postmortem': self.postmortem,
        if self.request is not None:
            c['request_GET_items'] = self.request.GET.items()
            c['request_FILES_items'] = self.request.FILES.items()
            c['request_COOKIES_items'] = self.request.COOKIES.items()
        # Check whether exception info is available
        if self.exc_type:
            c['exception_type'] = self.exc_type.__name__
        if self.exc_value:
            c['exception_value'] = str(self.exc_value)
        if frames:
            c['lastframe'] = frames[-1]
        return c

[docs]    def get_traceback_html(self):
        """Return HTML version of debug 500 HTTP error page."""
        with Path(CURRENT_DIR, 'templates', 'technical_500.html').open(encoding='utf-8') as fh:
            t = DEBUG_ENGINE.from_string(
        c = Context(self.get_traceback_data(), use_l10n=False)
        return t.render(c)

[docs]    def get_traceback_text(self):
        """Return plain text version of debug 500 HTTP error page."""
        with Path(CURRENT_DIR, 'templates', 'technical_500.txt').open(encoding='utf-8') as fh:
            t = DEBUG_ENGINE.from_string(
        c = Context(self.get_traceback_data(), autoescape=False, use_l10n=False)
        return t.render(c)

    def _get_lines_from_file(self, filename, lineno, context_lines, loader=None, module_name=None):
        Return context_lines before and after lineno from file.
        Return (pre_context_lineno, pre_context, context_line, post_context).
        source = None
        if hasattr(loader, 'get_source'):
                source = loader.get_source(module_name)
            except ImportError:
            if source is not None:
                source = source.splitlines()
        if source is None:
                with open(filename, 'rb') as fp:
                    source =
            except (OSError, IOError):
        if source is None:
            return None, [], None, []

        # If we just read the source from a file, or if the loader did not
        # apply tokenize.detect_encoding to decode the source into a
        # string, then we should do that ourselves.
        if isinstance(source[0], bytes):
            encoding = 'ascii'
            for line in source[:2]:
                # File coding may be specified. Match pattern from PEP-263
                # (
                match ='coding[:=]\s*([-\w.]+)', line)
                if match:
                    encoding ='ascii')
            source = [str(sline, encoding, 'replace') for sline in source]

        lower_bound = max(0, lineno - context_lines)
        upper_bound = lineno + context_lines

        pre_context = source[lower_bound:lineno]
        context_line = source[lineno]
        post_context = source[lineno + 1:upper_bound]

        return lower_bound, pre_context, context_line, post_context

    def get_traceback_frames(self):
        def explicit_or_implicit_cause(exc_value):
            explicit = getattr(exc_value, '__cause__', None)
            implicit = getattr(exc_value, '__context__', None)
            return explicit or implicit

        # Get the exception and all its causes
        exceptions = []
        exc_value = self.exc_value
        while exc_value:
            exc_value = explicit_or_implicit_cause(exc_value)

        frames = []
        # No exceptions were supplied to ExceptionReporter
        if not exceptions:
            return frames

        # In case there's just one exception, take the traceback from self.tb
        exc_value = exceptions.pop()
        tb = self.tb if not exceptions else exc_value.__traceback__

        while tb is not None:
            # Support for __traceback_hide__ which is used by a few libraries
            # to hide internal frames.
            if tb.tb_frame.f_locals.get('__traceback_hide__'):
                tb = tb.tb_next
            filename = tb.tb_frame.f_code.co_filename
            function = tb.tb_frame.f_code.co_name
            lineno = tb.tb_lineno - 1
            loader = tb.tb_frame.f_globals.get('__loader__')
            module_name = tb.tb_frame.f_globals.get('__name__') or ''
            pre_context_lineno, pre_context, context_line, post_context = self._get_lines_from_file(
                filename, lineno, 7, loader, module_name,
            if pre_context_lineno is None:
                pre_context_lineno = lineno
                pre_context = []
                context_line = ''
                post_context = []
                'exc_cause': explicit_or_implicit_cause(exc_value),
                'exc_cause_explicit': getattr(exc_value, '__cause__', True),
                'tb': tb,
                'type': 'django' if module_name.startswith('django.') else 'user',
                'filename': filename,
                'function': function,
                'lineno': lineno + 1,
                'vars': self.filter.get_traceback_frame_variables(self.request, tb.tb_frame),
                'id': id(tb),
                'pre_context': pre_context,
                'context_line': context_line,
                'post_context': post_context,
                'pre_context_lineno': pre_context_lineno + 1,

            # If the traceback for current exception is consumed, try the
            # other exception.
            if not tb.tb_next and exceptions:
                exc_value = exceptions.pop()
                tb = exc_value.__traceback__
                tb = tb.tb_next

        return frames

def technical_404_response(request, exception):
    """Create a technical 404 error response. `exception` is the Http404."""
        error_url = exception.args[0]['path']
    except (IndexError, TypeError, KeyError):
        error_url = request.path_info[1:]  # Trim leading slash

        tried = exception.args[0]['tried']
    except (IndexError, TypeError, KeyError):
        tried = []
        if (not tried or (                  # empty URLconf
            request.path == '/' and
            len(tried) == 1 and             # default URLconf
            len(tried[0]) == 1 and
            getattr(tried[0][0], 'app_name', '') == getattr(tried[0][0], 'namespace', '') == 'admin'
            return default_urlconf(request)

    urlconf = getattr(request, 'urlconf', settings.ROOT_URLCONF)
    if isinstance(urlconf, types.ModuleType):
        urlconf = urlconf.__name__

    caller = ''
        resolver_match = resolve(request.path)
    except Resolver404:
        obj = resolver_match.func

        if hasattr(obj, '__name__'):
            caller = obj.__name__
        elif hasattr(obj, '__class__') and hasattr(obj.__class__, '__name__'):
            caller = obj.__class__.__name__

        if hasattr(obj, '__module__'):
            module = obj.__module__
            caller = '%s.%s' % (module, caller)

    with Path(CURRENT_DIR, 'templates', 'technical_404.html').open() as fh:
        t = DEBUG_ENGINE.from_string(
    c = Context({
        'urlconf': urlconf,
        'root_urlconf': settings.ROOT_URLCONF,
        'request_path': error_url,
        'urlpatterns': tried,
        'reason': str(exception),
        'request': request,
        'settings': get_safe_settings(),
        'raising_view_name': caller,
    return HttpResponseNotFound(t.render(c), content_type='text/html')

def default_urlconf(request):
    """Create an empty URLconf 404 error response."""
    with Path(CURRENT_DIR, 'templates', 'default_urlconf.html').open() as fh:
        t = DEBUG_ENGINE.from_string(
    c = Context({
        'version': get_docs_version(),

    return HttpResponse(t.render(c), content_type='text/html')