Source code for django.db.models.indexes

from django.db.backends.utils import names_digest, split_identifier
from django.db.models.query_utils import Q
from django.db.models.sql import Query

__all__ = ['Index']

[docs]class Index:
    suffix = 'idx'
    # The max length of the name of the index (restricted to 30 for
    # cross-database compatibility with Oracle)
    max_name_length = 30

    def __init__(self, *, fields=(), name=None, db_tablespace=None, opclasses=(), condition=None):
        if opclasses and not name:
            raise ValueError('An index must be named to use opclasses.')
        if not isinstance(condition, (type(None), Q)):
            raise ValueError('Index.condition must be a Q instance.')
        if condition and not name:
            raise ValueError('An index must be named to use condition.')
        if not isinstance(fields, (list, tuple)):
            raise ValueError('Index.fields must be a list or tuple.')
        if not isinstance(opclasses, (list, tuple)):
            raise ValueError('Index.opclasses must be a list or tuple.')
        if opclasses and len(fields) != len(opclasses):
            raise ValueError('Index.fields and Index.opclasses must have the same number of elements.')
        if not fields:
            raise ValueError('At least one field is required to define an index.')
        self.fields = list(fields)
        # A list of 2-tuple with the field name and ordering ('' or 'DESC').
        self.fields_orders = [
            (field_name[1:], 'DESC') if field_name.startswith('-') else (field_name, '')
            for field_name in self.fields
        ] = name or ''
            errors = self.check_name()
            if len( > self.max_name_length:
                errors.append('Index names cannot be longer than %s characters.' % self.max_name_length)
            if errors:
                raise ValueError(errors)
        self.db_tablespace = db_tablespace
        self.opclasses = opclasses
        self.condition = condition

    def check_name(self):
        errors = []
        # Name can't start with an underscore on Oracle; prepend D if needed.
        if[0] == '_':
            errors.append('Index names cannot start with an underscore (_).')
   = 'D%s' %[1:]
        # Name can't start with a number on Oracle; prepend D if needed.
            errors.append('Index names cannot start with a number (0-9).')
   = 'D%s' %[1:]
        return errors

    def _get_condition_sql(self, model, schema_editor):
        if self.condition is None:
            return None
        query = Query(model=model)
        where = query.build_where(self.condition)
        compiler = query.get_compiler(connection=schema_editor.connection)
        sql, params = where.as_sql(compiler, schema_editor.connection)
        return sql % tuple(schema_editor.quote_value(p) for p in params)

    def create_sql(self, model, schema_editor, using=''):
        fields = [model._meta.get_field(field_name) for field_name, _ in self.fields_orders]
        col_suffixes = [order[1] for order in self.fields_orders]
        condition = self._get_condition_sql(model, schema_editor)
        return schema_editor._create_index_sql(
            model, fields,, using=using, db_tablespace=self.db_tablespace,
            col_suffixes=col_suffixes, opclasses=self.opclasses, condition=condition,

    def remove_sql(self, model, schema_editor):
        return schema_editor._delete_index_sql(model,

    def deconstruct(self):
        path = '%s.%s' % (self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__name__)
        path = path.replace('django.db.models.indexes', 'django.db.models')
        kwargs = {'fields': self.fields, 'name':}
        if self.db_tablespace is not None:
            kwargs['db_tablespace'] = self.db_tablespace
        if self.opclasses:
            kwargs['opclasses'] = self.opclasses
        if self.condition:
            kwargs['condition'] = self.condition
        return (path, (), kwargs)

    def clone(self):
        """Create a copy of this Index."""
        _, _, kwargs = self.deconstruct()
        return self.__class__(**kwargs)

    def set_name_with_model(self, model):
        Generate a unique name for the index.

        The name is divided into 3 parts - table name (12 chars), field name
        (8 chars) and unique hash + suffix (10 chars). Each part is made to
        fit its size by truncating the excess length.
        _, table_name = split_identifier(model._meta.db_table)
        column_names = [model._meta.get_field(field_name).column for field_name, order in self.fields_orders]
        column_names_with_order = [
            (('-%s' if order else '%s') % column_name)
            for column_name, (field_name, order) in zip(column_names, self.fields_orders)
        # The length of the parts of the name is based on the default max
        # length of 30 characters.
        hash_data = [table_name] + column_names_with_order + [self.suffix] = '%s_%s_%s' % (
            '%s_%s' % (names_digest(*hash_data, length=6), self.suffix),
        assert len( <= self.max_name_length, (
            'Index too long for multiple database support. Is self.suffix '
            'longer than 3 characters?'

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<%s: fields='%s'%s>" % (
            self.__class__.__name__, ', '.join(self.fields),
            '' if self.condition is None else ', condition=%s' % self.condition,

    def __eq__(self, other):
        return (self.__class__ == other.__class__) and (self.deconstruct() == other.deconstruct())