如何在 Windows 上安装 Django

This document will guide you through installing Python 3.8 and Django on Windows. It also provides instructions for setting up a virtual environment, which makes it easier to work on Python projects. This is meant as a beginner's guide for users working on Django projects and does not reflect how Django should be installed when developing patches for Django itself.

The steps in this guide have been tested with Windows 10. In other versions, the steps would be similar. You will need to be familiar with using the Windows command prompt.

安装Python

Django is a Python web framework, thus requiring Python to be installed on your machine. At the time of writing, Python 3.8 is the latest version.

To install Python on your machine go to https://python.org/downloads/. The website should offer you a download button for the latest Python version. Download the executable installer and run it. Check the boxes next to "Install launcher for all users (recommended)" then click "Install Now".

安装后,打开命令提示符,检查 Python 版本是否与你装的一致,通过运行:

...\> py --version

参见

想知晓更多细节,请查看 python:using/windows 文档。


关于 pip

pip is a package manager for Python and is included by default with the Python installer. It helps to install and uninstall Python packages (such as Django!). For the rest of the installation, we'll use pip to install Python packages from the command line.


Setting up a virtual environment

It is best practice to provide a dedicated environment for each Django project you create. There are many options to manage environments and packages within the Python ecosystem, some of which are recommended in the [https://packaging.python.org/guides/tool-recommendations/ Python documentation]. Python itself comes with venv for managing environments which we will use for this guide.

To create a virtual environment for your project, open a new command prompt, navigate to the folder where you want to create your project and then enter the following:

...\> py -m venv project-name

This will create a folder called 'project-name' if it does not already exist and setup the virtual environment. To activate the environment, run:

...\> project-name\Scripts\activate.bat

The virtual environment will be activated and you'll see "(project-name)" next to the command prompt to designate that. Each time you start a new command prompt, you'll need to activate the environment again.


安装 Django

Django 可以轻松地在你的虚拟环境中使用 pip 安装。

在命令提示行中,确认虚拟环境是激活的,然后运行以下命令:

...\> py -m pip install Django

这将下载并安装最新的 Django 发布版本。

安装完成后,你可以在命令提示符运行 django-admin --version 验证你安装的 Django。

参考 数据库安装 了解如何通过 Django 安装数据库。


常见失误

  • django-admin 无论输入啥参数都只显示帮助信息,这可能是一个 Windos 的文件关联问题。检查 PATH 中是否不止一个用于运行 Python 脚本的环境变量。该问题通常在安装了多个 Python 版本时出现。

  • 若你通过代理来连接互联网,运行命令 pip install Django 时可能会出现问题。在命令提示符中为代理配置如下环境变量:

    ...\> set http_proxy=http://username:[email protected]:proxyport
    ...\> set https_proxy=https://username:[email protected]:proxyport